launching of bmw z3 roadster case

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case Study

    Case Study # 7: BMW Automobiles INTRODUCTION PROBLEM BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Pestel Analysis Political * Geopolitical tensions and concerns about oil supplies, added to the uncertainty about the political environment due to war. * Employment laws vary in Europe, US and Asia. Economical * The financial crisis reduces the disposable income of consumers. * Taxes imposed by governments due to car’s emissions. * Equity prices fell. * Oil price went up so the

    Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

  • Premium Essay

    Customization at Bmw

    However, in the third year after the program was introduced, sales are lagging due to poor dealer participation and lack of corporate support. BMW offers few financial incentives to dealers and retailers received poor training. The IC only focuses on the luxury car buyer, ignoring performance car enthusiasts. Jeremy Shaver, product planning manager for BMW Group Canada, mustdevelop a marketing strategy to revive the IC, and ensure corporate and dealer support. Situation Analysis Objectives and

    Words: 1255 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case

    OVERVIEW In 2001, BMW came out with its latest innovative marketing strategy titled BMW Films. In partnering with Fallon and Anonymous Productions, who connected with A-list directors, actors, and production value, created a series of five films collectively called “The Hire” that generated 2.5 millions viewers with over 24,000 more unit sales than the 2000. And the question now rise to what should BMW’s next move be. ANALYSIS It took the firm about 50 years from its first automobile in 1929

    Words: 679 - Pages: 3

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Report

    Introduction to Project Management Systems _________________________________ Week 9 Case Study Report Recommendations for BMW _________________________________________ Contents 1. Recommendations 2. Rationale 3. Implementation 4. Alternatives 5. Metrics Report by: Lee Matthews

    Words: 1264 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Films

    Clive Owen into the mainstream. The Setup Like most car companies, BMW traditionally executes advertising campaigns (i.e., television, print and radio) to support new vehicle launches. However in 2000, there was no new vehicle launch for BMW, so the opportunity to spend advertising budget on pure branding arose (a marketer’s dream). The Key Insight Through extensive consumer research, BMW found their typical customer was 46 years old, with a median income of about $150

    Words: 650 - Pages: 3

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Z3 Roadster

    Launching the BMW Z3 Roadster BMW Z3 Roadster was a new product concept that reflected a niche opportunity. The main objective of the Z3 launch was to reposition their German-made, driving performance, tradition bound, and precision engineering cars as more stylish and fun to drive cars in the American culture. This risky movement of changing the brand personality was done using both nontraditional and traditional marketing tools. Some of the nontraditional methods used were

    Words: 1829 - Pages: 8

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Advertising Strategy

    BMW advertising strategy BMW has built its brand on 4 core values: * Technology * Quality * Performance * Exclusivity Coupled with WCRS (BMW’s advertising agency since 1979), the company made his advertising strategy, based on these values. However, it is important to point out that BMW also relies on its sensitively to the environment, which is clearly seen by how the company’s advertisements evolved in response to economic, environmental and competitive changes. The brand image

    Words: 461 - Pages: 2

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw: Redefining Premium Brand

    BMW: Redefining Premium Brand Identity BMW: Redefining Premium Brand Identity MGMT 8700 Strategic Management MBA Trimester 2, 2011 |Patrick Gallagher |20805458 | |Sion Karta |20182345 | |Mark Lim |10468237 | |Wei Zhe Poh |20605321 | |Jackie

    Words: 13392 - Pages: 54

  • Premium Essay

    Ge and Bmw

    | Case Assignment I (GE & BMW) | Marketing Management | | | 10/10/2012 | | 1. Business to Business marketing refers to the transactions made between two businesses. A vital step in business-to-business marketing is to create and communicate relevant differentiation from competitors. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb and today the same company taken gigantic steps in creating power plants. With the change in time, the marketing has to also evolve and no longer

    Words: 1841 - Pages: 8

  • Premium Essay

    Business Marketing

    Project Report Launching the BMW Z3 Roadster Introduction BMW Z3 is the 1st BMW car which is being manufactured in North America, a market which has contributed only 16% to BMW s revenues. At the same time, the American customer has found itself very difficult to relate itself to a foreign brand. Here lies the challenge for BMW and the marketing efforts behind the Z3 campaign are aimed at changing this perception of the American customer and ingrain BMS s brand image in the hearts of Americans

    Words: 1684 - Pages: 7

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw a Company Study

    BMW Company study Abstract: BMW is one of the leading luxury car makers in the market today. This study provides an insight into the company’s history and background. Also it contains an examination of BMW’s quality system, six sigma’s application and an observation of the quality control process throughout the different stages of the production phase. In addition, detailed information is presented on the number of employees and the training they receive before and during their work time in

    Words: 6824 - Pages: 28

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case

     What should be done to improve launch quality? Cause and Consequences of BMW quality problems In this case, there are few cause and consequences that BMW face during their production with newly launch products and resulting in some major impacts that puts BMW in disadvantage position when competing with its competitors. One of the reason that affects the launch quality was the designing time duration. In styling, BMW took around 2 years on designing and finalize the launch products which is longest

    Words: 1193 - Pages: 5

  • Premium Essay

    Bavarian Motor Works (Bmw): an Analysis on Its Success as a Multinational Enterprise

    Jay Soss 1/23/12 IBUS-301 Professor Harasamophaka Bavarian Motor Works (BMW): An Analysis on its Success as a Multinational Enterprise Introduction BMW Group manufactures products under three brands: BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW is a Multinational Enterprise that has been manufacturing and marketing luxury products for about a century. The company is currently the largest premium car maker in the world, followed closely by Mercedes-Benz and Audi. Their headquarters are located

    Words: 2547 - Pages: 11

  • Premium Essay

    Study the Development of Bmw

    9-699-044 REV: NOVEMBER 1, 2001 STEFAN THOMKE BMW AG: The Digital Car Project (A) “Looks great,” thought Chris Bangle as he walked by a picture of the new BMW 3-Series which was about one year away from its scheduled 1998 launch in Germany. Bangle, a former Wisconsin native, who became the company’s director of worldwide design at age 35, glanced at his watch. In just 30 minutes, he would meet with other senior managers about project recommendations that might revolutionize the way cars had

    Words: 8363 - Pages: 34

  • Free Essay

    Hbs Case Bmw

    HBS CASE: BMW FILMS 11/11/13 S. Kursat Sornaoglu 012541488 1. How fit is the BMW brand at the time of the case? Are there any reasons to anticipate undesirable financial performance in the future? BMW is well fit and is able to sell it's products easily. There is no reason to anticipate any financial problems. 2. What is BMW’s unique selling proposition? Describe a typical BMW’s target customer and how the company’s products fulfill his needs. They sell the world's most exciting luxury cars which

    Words: 824 - Pages: 4

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Company

    The BMW Group – one of Germany’s largest industrial companies – is one of the most successful car and motorcycle manufacturers in the world.With BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce, the BMW Group owns three of the strongest premium brands in the automobile industry. The company formulated their Strategy Number ONE, which aligns the BMW Group with two targets: to be profitable and to enhance long-term value in times of change. And this applies to technological, structural as well as cultural aspects of

    Words: 1212 - Pages: 5

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case Study

    objective of the project is to halve lead time of product development in BMW from 60 months to 30 month. As a result, the firm can incorporate reflect fickle customers’ tastes and the latest technology to their product development quickly and it enable them to fit the market needs strategically. If this change is successful, the experience and knowledge can be transferred to 7-series and all other new projects. It will make BMW in front of the competition. And it will save huge money and time of the

    Words: 1455 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Dream Factory

    4/24/2010 [This paper is about a case study, “ BMW’s Dream Factory & Culture .”It tries to examine five specific issues. First, it describes the culture at BMW. Second, it discusses the model of leadership illustrated at BMW and the related impact on the organization culture. Third, it analyzes why employees derive high job satisfaction at BMW, using specific job characteristic models. Fourth, it Discuss the attributes of organizational creativity that are fostered at BMW. Finally, it discusses how culture

    Words: 1970 - Pages: 8

  • Premium Essay

    Launching of Bmw Z3 Roadster -Case Study Report

    MARKETING MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY : Launching the BMW Z3 Roadster SYNOPSIS BMW, a German automobile manufacturer, known for its German engineering and quality, had established itself as a strong brand in the luxury/performance segment in U.S.A. However due to increasing competition from car makers such as infinity, Lexus, Acura, its sales dropped during the period mid 80’s to late 90’s . The case deals with the launch, of the now infamous BMW Z3 roadster, a car that revolutionized and rejuvenated

    Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Films

    BMW Films: Individual Case Analysis The Problem Statement What is the next step for the BMW Marketing Team to continue benefitting their company through their marketing campaigns without the risk of diminishing returns? Key Points from the Case * 90% of the viewers on the BMW Films website prefer it if they made more films. They really liked their marketing campaign based on the reviews and feedback. This really showed that BMW had a competitive edge against other competitors. * BMW’s

    Words: 399 - Pages: 2

  • Premium Essay

    Daimler/Bmw a New Breed of Driver

    MKTG6MKTG6MKTG Chapter 4 Case Study: Daimler/BMW A New Breed of Driver Boasting 500,000 members, double-digit growth rates, and the largest selection of vehicles, Zipcar has firmly established itself as the leader in car-sharing programs. And while profitability for the business has yet to emerge, the demand is certainly there. Car ownership in many of the largest cities throughout the world has recently been flat or in decline, as major urban centers become increasingly crowded, with cities like

    Words: 897 - Pages: 4

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Z3 Launch

    ‘non-traditional’ marketing venue for the Z3 Launch? 1. To create a buzz that could be leveraged (From James McDowell – Page 3). 2. It was more cost efficient per dollar spent and made an impact on larger group of publics. 3. Unconventional way of introducing a unique vehicle. 4. It believed nontraditional media resulted in more and lasting exposure. Q2. Do you agree with McDowell that the Z3 launch qualifies as a ‘paradigm shift’ in the marketing for BMW and for marketers in general?

    Words: 568 - Pages: 3

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Case

    BMW is one of the three European luxury vehicle powerhouses. BMW is known for its high end luxury vehicles but when the company was founded, automobiles were not its number one priority. In fact BMW didn’t start creating automobiles until 13 years after BMW was founded. BMW was founded March 7th 1916. Originally BMW mainly produced aircraft engines. They produced these engines until the end of World War 1. The Versailles Armistice Treaty halted their production because their engines were used in

    Words: 359 - Pages: 2

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case Study

    downturns, increasing competition from other makers such as Ford, Daimler-Chrysler and other major auto manufactures. Although BMW performed well during this period of competitive conditions, with production steadily increasing and commanding a premium price for their product, BMW reported a net loss in 1999. However, it was back making a profit in 2000. In 2001, BMW was able to increase retail sales by 10% in a stagnating world market. I believe, their customer service, environmental concerns;

    Words: 2367 - Pages: 10

  • Premium Essay

    Hbs Case: Bmw Films

    HBS CASE: BMW FILMS 1. How fit is the BMW brand at the time of the case? Are there any reasons to anticipate undesirable financial performance in the future? How fit is BMW at the time of the case? Justify: BMW is very fit at the time of the case, which was August 2001. Verify: During the period from 1996~2001, BMW sales rebounded and eventually reached record levels in the US Quantify: Compared to their slump around 1991 where BMW sold around 55,000 cars, they were able to sell 190,000

    Words: 1549 - Pages: 7

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw: a Case Fie

    The Culture of BMW Much of BMW’s success has derived from cultivating the concept of an entrepreneurial culture. They have adopted the idea to provide a place where workers feel connected, feel more like a family, and where work is compared more ofto a lifestyle. “From the moment they set foot inside the company, associates experience a sense of place, history, and mission” (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2009, p. 522). The conversation and communication can be formal, but it is often informal. Decisions

    Words: 1277 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Marketing Case Analysis

    Assignment Case 1 Question Number 1 Answer Pros to BMW The pros of selecting target marketing is • BMW created the lower-priced 1 Series and X3 SUV to target the “modern mainstream,” a group who are also family-focused and active but had previously avoided BMWs because of the premium cost. • The 1 Series reached this group with its lower price point, sporty design, and aspiration to own a luxury brand. The X3 also hit home with its smaller, less consumers expensive SUV design. BMW introduced

    Words: 1681 - Pages: 7

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Case

    BMW Case Analysis BMW Films Case Analysis Statement / Cause of the Problem The critical problems that seem to be facing BMW in the case are that BMW needs to continue to find ways to continue being the number one luxury import in the United States and continue to find ways to stand out amongst all the other luxury car competitors in the market with their innovative advertising campaigns. It has become increasingly harder and harder for BMW because of how many competitors have emerged in the

    Words: 2011 - Pages: 9

  • Premium Essay

    Case 2-1 Bmw Taps the Emerging Chinese Luxury Market

    Case 2-1 BMW Taps the Emerging Chinese Luxury market 1a) Human beings have a tendency to demand more luxury products when their income increases. As the text indicates, income of Chinese people has risen over the last few years so they start to demand more luxury goods. With their higher income also the more traditional collectivist values disappeared. 1b) Chinese people believe that the countries in Northern-Europe are symbols of luxury and with their recent rise in income they are starting

    Words: 478 - Pages: 2

  • Free Essay

    Launching

    (CIPD) The carrier’s interest is in competencies related to their objectives. This is revealed by rigorous assessments that include; interviews to establish communicative abilities, research missions to find facts regarding potential assignments in case of hiring-this reveals one’s interactive skills, psychometrics test to test arithmetic and communication abilities, role-plays and team activities. Impacts on staff motivation BA staff are some of the best remunerated and well taken care of. Through

    Words: 1192 - Pages: 5

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Group Analysis

    The BMW Group - Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (English: Bavarian Motor Works) was found in 1916 and today with its brands BMW, Mini, Rolls-Royce and BMW motorcycles is one of the largest car manufacturers in the World. As part of being leader in luxury car manufacturing, BMW group provides services such as Finance services for leasing its cars, BMW performance Insurance, BMW Teleservices, Apps, car servicing, airplane and train design. In this project we will be focusing just on production aspect

    Words: 1364 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Z3 Roadster

    LAUNCHING THE BMW Z3 ROADSTAR 1. BMW Overview 1916 760 53 110,000 (2013 (2013 ) ) BMW , . BMW , Bayerische Motoren Werker BMW, , . 2 1. BMW Overview 3 2. BMW History 1916 1923 1928 1945 3 R32 / ( 2 BMW 5, 3, 7 BMW , (Spartanburg plant) (BMW Dixi , 1929) ) BFW( Bayerische Flugzeug Werke AG) 1972 ~ 1977 1994 1995 1998 2000 , BMW (Rolls-Royce) 4 3. BMW Z3 Roadster BMW Z3 Roadster ( 2 1930 328 507 Z1 1,900cc 4 ) Spartanburg (South Carolina)

    Words: 461 - Pages: 2

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Culture

    Culture at BMW Much of BMW’s success stems from an entrepreneurial culture that is rare in corporate Germany. BMW’s employees are a network of committed associates with few hierarchical barriers to hinder innovation (Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W, Jr. 2009). The corporate strategy at BMW is identify potential, encourage growth, and recognize where their strength lies which leads to making the best of every opportunity (BMW Group, 2008). It is important to have a culture of openness where employees

    Words: 1304 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    A Foundamental Evaluation of the Bmw Group

    A Fundamental Valuation of the BMW Group Authors: Jalpesh Madlani – MSc Applied Economics and Finance Jens Chr. Ulvestad – MSc Applied Economics and Finance Supervisor: Jeppe Schoenfeld, Deloitte Number of Pages and Total Characters: 120 pages, 254.877 characters Submission Date: October 22nd 2012 Master Thesis – Copenhagen Business School 2012 Resumé This thesis conducts an in-depth analysis of the BMW Group in order to determine the fair value of the Group’s share price and to conclude

    Words: 60927 - Pages: 244

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case

    The Harvard Business School case from 2002 shows BMW attempting to focus purely on branding BMW in order to surpass competition in marketing innovation, gain market share and reach new sales goals of an additional 40% in the US. This focus on branding resulted in the production of 5 short films under the name BMWFilms that attracted the younger generation and neglected the current consumers. BMW should supplement this with advertising focused on their current consumer as well as additional customer

    Words: 1347 - Pages: 6

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Z3 Case Analysis

    This case is based in the 90’s era when BMW decided to reinvigorate its sales and brand, make the BMW brand global and penetrate into the US market. The key challenges that lie in front of James McDowell, VP Marketing at BMW (NA) to launch a Phase II program for BMW Z3 Roadster are: a. Design a marketing campaign to create a sustained product excitement, continuing what was generated from Z3 Phase I program, until product is available at dealer stores b. Attract consumers based only the demand

    Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw These

    Thomas Polesie Master Thesis, 10 points Abstract Master Thesis in Business Administration School of Economics and Commercial Law Gothenburg University Autumn 2006 Authors: Hiba Larsson and Christian Falkemark Thesis Adviser: Thomas Polesie Title: BMW – A Company Analysis Thesis Language: English Background: The automotive industry is distinguished by a highly competitive market. Thus, the actors on the market struggle with increasing cost of production, development and mature markets. With the

    Words: 18022 - Pages: 73

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Culture

    1. How would you describe the culture at BMW? 2. What model of leadership is illustrated at BMW? How does this impact BMW’s culture? 3. Using the concepts illustrated in the job characteristics model, analyze why employees derive high job satisfaction at BMW. 4. What attributes of organizational creativity are fostered at BMW? SOLUTION 1. BMW has an entrepreneurial culture that is characterized by high

    Words: 905 - Pages: 4

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Films

    Question: What was the objective of BMW films? Was it successful? The BMW is a car manufacturer with quite small market share in the U.S. market (slightly below 2%). Brand is being perceived as a yuppie and status car, while consumption patterns in USA market changes from “conspicuous consumption” to more pragmatic style. In comparison with Lexus and Mercedes Benz, BMW is perceived as less comfortable, roomy and dependable. Still, in 2001 BMW is at its top in terms on sales and brand strength

    Words: 795 - Pages: 4

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case Study

    Bayerische Motoren Wekre (BMW) is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. A number of different candidates have been put forward as the “founder” of BMW. In the absence of Karl Rapp, Gusstav Otto, Max Fritz or Camillo Castiglioni the company probably never would have been born. However, Franz Josef Popp can lay claim to being the prime force in the development of the mobility company we know today. The rise of the BMW to one of Bavaria’s and Germany’s big

    Words: 2320 - Pages: 10

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Z3 Roadster

    SUSAN FOURNIER ROBERT J. DOLAN Launching the BMW Z3 Roadster January 1996 marked the beginning of Phase II of BMW of North America Inc.’s Z3 roadster introduction. Phase I had centered on the placement of the new $28,750 two-seat convertible in the James Bond hit movie, GoldenEye, which premiered several months earlier. While not yet critically evaluated, results of the “out-of-the-box” pre-launch campaign appeared very positive: word-ofmouth concerning the Z3 and the James Bond cross-promotion

    Words: 8686 - Pages: 35

  • Premium Essay

    Bmws

    Bmw Company The BMW Group – one of Germany’s largest industrial companies – is one of the most successful car and motorcycle manufacturers in the world.With BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce, the BMW Group owns three of the strongest premium brands in the automobile industry. The company formulated their Strategy Number ONE, which aligns the BMW Group with two targets: to be profitable and to enhance long-term value in times of change. And this applies to technological, structural as well as cultural

    Words: 312 - Pages: 2

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case

    BMW Case 1. What was BMW’s position in the market in 1986? Who was buying BMW and what were they buying? BMW was in a leadership position in the U.S. market as it peaked at 96,000 units sold. Its worldwide performance had continually improved. It was the “high flying” brand of the 1980s, the ultimate “yuppie” status symbol. Generally, younger affluent customers, the most demanding market segment, are buying BMW’s. More specifically, people that make a median income of 100 thousand

    Words: 699 - Pages: 3

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case Study

    BMW Case Study A. The BMW customization program “Dream It.Build It.Drive It.” for X3 series compact SUV model had driven sales across North America. Joseph Wierda, BMW product manager was contemplating using the same marketing strategy to drive sales across all BMW product lines. He was particularly interested in using this customization strategy for flagship brand X5 and a new model X4 launching in 2015. The major marketing challenges to implement this customized program were as below:

    Words: 1445 - Pages: 6

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case Study

    BMW, renowned as one of the world leaders in the production of precision automobiles is not a company that has rested on the laurels of it products nor has the company allowed its success to hamper efforts to expand and remain a top competitor in the global market today. Begun as Rapp Motoren Werke, in Munich Germany, as an airplane engine manufacturer, in 1916 by Karl Friedrich Rapp, a well know engineer. (Rudelius, 2011) Nearby, Gustav Otto, set up his own shop, Gustav Flugmaschinefabrik, building

    Words: 1498 - Pages: 6

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Case

    Recommendations BMW, being a global company decided to open Spartanburg plant in North America. We think it should have had an approach to open few other plants in other top strategic parts of the globe at the same time. If it had done so, it might not have given an opportunity to its competitors in those strategic parts of the globe to open their plants or to develop a similar strategy. Doing so, BMW would have gained the edge over its competitors. The central goal of the launch was to expand the BMW franchise

    Words: 493 - Pages: 2

  • Free Essay

    Bmw Case Study Analysis

    Lindstrom 1 Nate Lindstrom Professor Fruchter Marketing Principles 10 February 2011 BMW Case Study Analysis According to a 2000 poll conducted by Gfk Roper, women buy 60 percent of new cars and 53% of used cars. A 2009 poll by NBC/Universal shows much of the same: ³eight of 10 women say they are involved, solely or jointly, in car purchase decisions. And a third say they make those decisions themselves´ (Motavalli, 2009). It logically follows that since women easily account for more

    Words: 931 - Pages: 4

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Ag; Financial Performance Analysis

    BMW AG; Financial Performance Analysis This paper is prepared by: Asif Ahmed BBA 13th Batch Department of Accounting & Information Systems Faculty of Business Studies University of Dhaka, Bangladesh E-mail; asif.ahmed0001@yahoo.com Cell Phone; +8801922939126 BMW AG; Financial Performance Analysis (Asif Ahmed) 1 of 24 Executive Summary: The world is just recovering from a big recessio n. Various big corporations became bankrupt because of this. Many of the automaker giant posted

    Words: 4944 - Pages: 20

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Project of Management

    BACKGROUND BMW was officially founded as a public company in 1922, but traces its origins to the pioneering days of German aviation all the way back to 1913. Two of these pioneering men, Karl Rapp and Gustav Otto, are credited by BMW as the "founding fathers". However, BMW owes its actual founding by three men: Josef Popp, Max Friz, and Camillo Castiglioni. These men brought BMW through many turbulent times in the company's early life, as well as taking the company public in 1922 to form BMW AG. BMW stands

    Words: 6797 - Pages: 28

  • Premium Essay

    Bmw Case Study

    to manufacture a BMW. As a result, buyers do have some leverage in being able to negotiate a purchasing price from BMW. Competitive Rivalry - Extremely High Any competitor in this market is generally a global company with billions of dollars in assets and can compete on any level that BMW can. Furthermore, there is intense competition on all fronts in the car market in general, not to mention the luxury car market. Major manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda are pinching BMW with their luxury

    Words: 275 - Pages: 2

+
-